Preschool Classroom Behavior in Context

Development and Validation of the Spanish Form of the Adjustment Scales for Preschool Intervention (ASPI)


  • Rebecca Jane Bulotsky-Shearer University of Miami, Department of Psychology, Child Division
  • Paul A McDermott Human Development and Quantitative Methods Division, Graduate School of Education, University of Pennsylvania
  • Jenna Futterer University of Miami
  • Michael Lopez NORC at the University of Chicago
  • Mileidis Gort University of Colorado Boulder


The purpose of the study was to validate the context scale scores for the Spanish language form of the Adjustment Scales for Preschool Intervention (ASPI) for use by early childhood teachers from Spanish speaking backgrounds. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in a diverse sample of preschool children from low-income families (N = 4,077) revealed two dimensions of context scales of behavioral adjustment: Problems in Preschool Classroom Contexts Requiring Disciplined Behavior and Problems in Contexts Requiring Engaged Behavior. ASPI dimension scores across Spanish and English language forms were horizontally equated through IRT. Criterion-related validity using multilevel models was established through concurrent associations with teacher-ratings, classroom observations, and direct assessments of social, emotional, behavioral, and academic readiness skills. Policy and practice applications, and future directions for the use of context scores are discussed.